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043052P General Pathology, 5 ECTS cr 
Code 043052P  Validity 01.08.2016 -
Name General Pathology  Abbreviation General Patholo 
Scope5 ECTS cr   
TypeBasic Studies Discipline5401 Medicine 
  Grading1 - 5, pass, fail 
Unit Medicine 

Mäkinen, Markus Juhana 
Vesa-Matti Pohjanen 

ECTS Credits 


Language of instruction 



2nd year, autumn (C3/DC3)

Learning outcomes 

The course is designed to provide medical and dental students with the principles underlying the etiology, mechanisms and development of disease. It aims to prepare the students to identify and evaluate the morphological changes caused by various diseases as well as to understand the functional and clinical significance of these changes.

Upon completion the student will be expected to have acquired the knowledge of the basic disease mechanisms (etiology and pathogenesis), their basic morphological, functional and clinical characteristics, and the terminology related with diseases. The student should have acquired the skills to recognize the most common macroscopic and microscopic features of diseases and be able to reason the relationship between these features and the clinical manifestations of diseases.


Cellular adaptation; cell and tissue injury; healing; infections and immunological mechanisms in disease; genetic and environmental causes of disease; inflammation; storage diseases; disorders of fluid balance and circulation; basic pathology of neoplastic diseases; diagnostic pathology; principles of cytology; cardiovascular pathology.

Mode of delivery 

Multifaceted teaching.


Learning activities and teaching methods 

Preliminary examination. Lectures 30 hours, small group teaching 21 hours. Self-study 82 hours. Written examinations 2 hours.

Target group 

Medical and dental students.

Prerequisites and co-requisites 

Preliminary examination. Previous documented completion of the courses of anatomy and physiology is recommended.

Recommended optional programme components 

The course has to be completed during the preclinical period of medical and dental studies. 

Recommended or required reading 

Textbooks: Cross SS: Underwood’s Pathology, a clinical approach (6th ed. 2013 or newer; sections: Basic pathology and General disease mechanisms); or Kumar V. et al.: Robbins Basic Pathology, (9th ed. 2013 or newer), Alternatives: Kumar V. et al.: Robbins and Cotran, Pathologic basis of disease (8th ed. 2010 or newer). In Finnish: Mäkinen M. et al. Patologia, Duodecim, 2012 or newer.

Material provided during the course (in Finnish only): lecture handouts; guidebook for virtual microscopy demonstrations; guidebook for autopsy demonstrations.

Assessment methods and criteria 

Passed preliminary examination. Participation in the compulsory demonstrations and passing of the final examination.



Person responsible 

Professor Markus Mäkinen

Working life cooperation 

Clinical demonstrations and teaching related to medical autopsies is organised in collaboration with the Department of Pathology, Oulu University Hospital.

Other information 

Participation in autopsies and autopsy demonstrations is voluntary, but targeted to  medical and dental students only.


Current and future instruction
Functions Name Type ECTS cr Teacher Schedule
Registration Yleinen patologia  Course  Mäkinen, Markus Juhana  02.11.21 -21.12.21

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